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What You Should Know About Antibiotics

Patient education: What you should know about antibiotics (The Basics) Written by the doctors and editors at UpToDate What are antibiotics? — Antibiotics are medicines that help people fight infections caused by bacteria. They work by killing bacteria that are in the body. These medicines come in many different forms, including pills, ointments, and liquids that are given by injection. …

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Hair Loss

Patient education: Hair loss in men and women (The Basics) Written by the doctors and editors at UpToDate What causes hair loss? — The most common cause of hair loss is a condition called “androgenetic alopecia.” This condition is also known as “male-pattern baldness” when it happens in men and “female-pattern hair loss” when it happens in women. Androgenetic alopecia …

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Outer Ear Infection

Patient education: Outer ear infection (The Basics) Written by the doctors and editors at UpToDate What is an outer ear infection? — An outer ear infection is a condition that can cause pain in the ear canal. The ear canal is the part of the ear that goes from the side of the head to the eardrum (figure 1). An …

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Nosebleeds

Patient education: Nosebleeds (The Basics) Written by the doctors and editors at UpToDate Why do people get nosebleeds? — It can be scary when blood starts coming out your nose or your child’s nose. But nosebleeds are not usually serious. They are very common. The most common causes are dry air and nose-picking. If you or your child gets a …

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Fungal Nail Infections

Patient education: Fungal nail infections (The Basics) Written by the doctors and editors at UpToDate What is a fungal nail infection? — A fungal nail infection is an infection of the nail that makes it get thick or turn white, yellow, or brown. It is caused by a type of germ called a “fungus.” Fungal infections happen in the toenails …

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Calcium and Vitamin D for Bone Health

Patient education: Calcium and vitamin D for bone health (The Basics) Written by the doctors and editors at UpToDate Why are calcium and vitamin D important for bone health? — Calcium and vitamin D are important for bone health, because they can: ●Help keep bones strong ●Prevent bones from breaking easily, especially bones in the spine ●Help keep teeth healthy …

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Knee Pain in Adults

Patient education: Knee pain (The Basics) Written by the doctors and editors at UpToDate What causes knee pain? — Many different conditions can cause knee pain. Some of the most common are listed below. ●Bending or using the knee too much – This can cause pain in the front of the knee that worsens with running, climbing steps, or sitting …

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Neck Pain

Patient education: Neck pain (The Basics) Written by the doctors and editors at UpToDate What can cause neck pain? — Neck pain happens when there is a problem with or injury to any of the parts (“structures”) in the neck (figure 1). The structures in the neck include: ●Bones – The neck has 7 bones that are stacked on top …

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Kidney Stones in Adults

Patient education: Kidney stones in adults (The Basics) Written by the doctors and editors at UpToDate What are kidney stones? — Kidney stones are just what they sound like: small stones that form inside the kidneys. They form when salts and minerals that are normally in the urine build up and harden. Kidney stones usually get carried out of the …

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Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

Patient education: Blood in the urine (hematuria) in adults (The Basics) Written by the doctors and editors at UpToDate Should I be worried if there is blood in my urine? — It can be scary to see blood in your urine. But try to stay calm. Blood in the urine is not usually serious. Still, it is important to see …